Perceptions of Teachers

Indonesian Christian Teachers’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Professional Development Programs Offered by ACSI-I and Indonesian National Department of Education”

by Amy Iwani

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership

College of Education

Columbia International University




This is a study to examine Indonesian Christian teachers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of professional development programs offered by the Association of Christian Schools International Indonesia (ACSI-I) and by the Indonesian National Department of Education. The study was focused on how Indonesian Christian teachers perceived the effectiveness of three areas of professional development; the content of the programs, the method of instruction, and the applicability to the classroom. The survey was distributed to 11 Christian schools, member schools of ACSI-I in Java. Out of total 270 distributed survey instruments, there were 221 surveys that were completed and returned. From the first area, frequency analysis was used to compute the result of the survey and means were calculated while comparing the ratings. From the second area of the survey, the resulting findings showed that Problem-based Learning received the highest overall rating for perceived effective method of instruction and from the third area of the survey, Classroom Management received the highest overall rating for perceived applicable topic of professional development. Concerning their educational and professional backgrounds, the results of the survey showed that 57% of the respondents held a bachelor’s degree in a non-educational field, 31% held a bachelor’s degree in the educational field, 37% had work experience in a non-educational field, 31% of the respondents had previously taught in a Christian school, and 20% of the respondents had other experiences which were mostly serving as Sunday school teachers or working as private tutors. Less than 10% of respondents indicated backgrounds in teaching in a private national school or in a public school. Next, means of these different groups of participants were compared. The findings show that the group of teachers with a bachelor’s degree in a non-educational field gave higher ratings than the group with degrees in education to the applicability of all the topics discussed in the professional development programs. Moreover, the findings show that comparing to other groups, the group of teachers whose working experience was in public schools, rated Classroom Management, Teaching and Understanding Exceptional Learners, Evaluation of Learning, Curriculum Development, and Research Skills as applicable. On the other hand, the group of teachers who previously work in other fields, perceived Biblical Integration and the Use of Technology in the Classroom as applicable topics, and Current Trend of Education was rated as applicable by the group of teachers who previously worked in private Christian schools. Based on these findings, the first recommendation is for schools to involve teachers while planning professional development programs. Secondly, active learning strategies are preferable to deliver the topics of professional development. Finally, relevant teachers’ training topics and quality training facilities have become major issues brought up as recommendation by the participants.

 For Dr. Iwani's complete dissertation, click here to order (UMI Publication Number 3607445).

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